K. Anders Ericsson

FSCW/Conradi Eminent Scholar
Florida State Cognitive & Expertise Labs

2014 Ericsson reply to Macnemara et al Psych Science Sept 14.pdf

2014 Ericsson reply to Macnemara et al Supplementary material Sept 14.doc

2012 Ericssons reply to APS Observer article Oct 28 on web.doc

Brief biographical description with a listing of scientific papers

ERICSSON, K. ANDERS, is Conradi Eminent Scholar and Professor of Psychology at Florida State University. In 1976 he received his Ph. D. in Psychology from University of Stockholm, Sweden, followed by post-doctoral fellowship at Carnegie-Mellon University. In 1980 he moved to University of Colorado at Boulder, where he remained until 1992 with the exception of a two-year leave during 1987-89 at the Max-Planck Institute for Human Development and Education in Berlin. His dissertation (Ericsson, 1976) examined how verbal reports on cognitive processes provided insight into the structure of problem solving on the 8-puzzle. In collaboration with Herbert Simon he proposed a model of the processes involved in verbalization of sequences of thought and showed how some verbal report requirements, such as generations of explanation, have reactive effects on the studied cognitive processes whereas other reporting procedures, such as think-aloud and retrospective reports, valid data on thought processes. This work was initially published in Psychological Review (Ericsson & Simon, 1980) and then expanded into a book "Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data" (Ericsson & Simon, 1984) which was subsequently revised (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). With Bill Chase he studied the acquisition of a vastly improved digit-span in college students (Ericsson, Chase, & Faloon, 1980) and they developed the Theory of Skilled Memory (Chase & Ericsson, 1982; Ericsson & Chase, 1982) to explain their findings and other data on exceptional memory performance. With Walter Kintsch he extended this theory into Long-Term Working Memory (Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) to account also for the superior working memory of expert performers and memory experts (Ericsson, 1985; Ericsson & Polson, 1988). His current research concerns the structure and acquisition of expert performance and in particular how expert performers acquire and maintain their superior performance by extended deliberate practice (Ericsson, 1998; Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993; Ericsson & Charness, 1994; Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996; Krampe & Ericsson, 1996, Lehmann & Ericsson, 1998a). He has edited books on the structure of expertise "Toward a General Theory of Expertise: Prospects and Limits" (Ericsson & Smith, 1991) and the acquisition of expert performance "The Road to Excellence: The Acquisition of Expert Performance in the Arts and Sciences, Sports, and Games" (Ericsson, 1996). For some recent reviews of the continuing work on expert performance (see Ericsson, 1998, 1999, in press), on Long-term working memory (LTWM) (see Ericsson & Delaney, 1998, 1999; Ericsson & Kintsch (in press); Ericsson, Patel & Kintsch, 2000) on protocol analysis (see Crutcher & Ericsson, 2000; Ericsson & Simon, 1998) and expert performance in music (see Lehmann & Ericsson, 1998a, 1998b, 1999).


Chase, W. G., & Ericsson, K. A. (1982). Skill and working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), the psychology of learning and motivation, Vol. 16 (pp. 1-58). New York: Academic Press.

Crutcher, R. J., & Ericsson , K. A. (2000). The role of mediators in memory retrieval as a function of practice: Controlled mediation to direct access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Ericsson, K. A. (1976). Approaches to descriptions and analyses of problem-solving processes: The 8-puzzle. Reports from the Department of Psychology, the University of Stockholm, Supplement No. 32 (Doctoral dissertation).

Ericsson, K. A. (1985). Memory skill. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39(2), 188-231.

Ericsson, K. A. (Ed.) (1996). The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ericsson, K. A. (1998). The Scientific Study of Expert Levels of Performance: General Implications for Optimal Learning and Creativity. High Ability Studies, 9(1), 75-100.

Ericsson, K. A. (1999). Creative Expertise as Superior Reproducible Performance: Innovative and Flexible Aspects of Expert Performance. Psychological Inquiry, 10(4), 329-333.

Ericsson, K. A. (in press). Attaining excellence through deliberate practice: Insights from the study of expert performance. In M. Ferrari (Ed.), The pursuit of excellence in education. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Ericsson, K. A., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49(8), 725-747.

Ericsson, K. A., & Chase, W. G. (1982). Exceptional memory. American Scientist, 70, 607-615.

Ericsson, K. A., Chase, W. G., & Faloon, S. (1980). Acquisition of a memory skill. Science, 208, 1181-1182.

Ericsson, K. A., & Delaney, P. F. (1998). Working memory and expert performance. In R. H. Logie and K. J. Gilhooly (Eds.), Working Memory and Thinking (pp. 93-114). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Ericsson, K. A., & Delaney, P. F. (1999). Long-term working memory as an alternative to capacity models of working memory in everyday skilled performance. In A. Miyake and P. Shah (Eds.), Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control" (pp. 257-297), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (in press). Shortcomings of Generic Retrieval Structures with Slots of the Type that Gobet (1993) Proposed and Modeled. British Journal of Psychology.

Ericsson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102(2), 211-245.

Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. Th., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363-406.

Ericsson, K. A., & Lehmann, A. C. (1996). Expert and exceptional performance: Evidence on maximal adaptations on task constraints. Annual Review of Psychology, 47. 273-305.

Ericsson, K. A., Patel, V. L., & Kintsch, W. (2000). How experts' adaptations to representative task demands account for the expertise effect in memory recall: Comment on Vicente and Wang (1998). Psychological Review, 107.

Ericsson, K. A., & Polson, P. G. (1988). An experimental analysis of the mechanisms of a memory skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 14, 305-316.

Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1980). Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review, 87, 215-251.

Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1984). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press.

Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis; Verbal reports as data (revised edition). Cambridge, MA: Bradford books/MIT Press.

Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1998). How to study thinking in everyday life: Contrasting think-aloud protocols with descriptions and explanations of thinking. Mind, Culture, & Activity, 5(3), 178-186.

Ericsson, K. A., & Smith, J. (Eds.) (1991). Toward a general theory of expertise: Prospects and limits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kintsch, W., Patel, V. L. & Ericsson, K. A. (1999). The role of Long-Term Working-Memory in text comprehension. Psychologica, 42, 186-198.

Krampe, R. Th., & Ericsson, K. A. (1996). Maintaining excellence: Deliberate practice and elite performance in young and older pianists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 125, 331-359.

Lehmann, A. C., & Ericsson K. A. (1998a). The historical development of domains of expertise: Performance standards and innovations in music. In A. Steptoe (Ed.), Genius and the mind (pp. 67-94). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Lehmann, A. C., & Ericsson K. A. (1998b). Preparation of a public piano performance: The relation between practice and performance. Musicae Scientiae, 2, 69-94.

Lehmann, A. C., & Ericsson K. A. (1999). Research on expert performance and deliberate practice: Some implications for the education of amateur musicians and music students. Psychomusicology, 16, 40-58.